Based on the current findings observed in the present studies it is concluded that the methanol-chloroform extract (MSE) of the Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Kratom) leaves and its dominant alkaloid mitragynine (MIT) have potential to cause cytotoxicity to mammalian cells at high doses and is possibly harmful to human users. Buy Kratom In Illinois mIT is proposed to be a

major contributor to MSE cytotoxicity. The main target system of MSE and MIT cytotoxicity is the central nervous system as shown by sensitivity of neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) throughout the studies. In general MSE and to a thai kratom x20 black sticky resin lesser extent MIT were found to exert their dose dependant cytotoxicity effects in all Buy Kratom In kratom review erowid Illinois human cell lines examined both in acute treatment and also in the longer term as assessed by the clonogenicity assay. M arrest for HEK 293 cells.

Kratom is in the same family as the coffee tree (Rubiaceae). Our Kratom is freshly imported Indonesia and is of the highest currently known commercial grade. The genus Mitragyna belongs to the family Rubiaceae and is found in swampy territory in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia.

If time had permitted the role of metabolism in activating MSE and MIT would have been an important area to pursue. As part of a toxicological assessment genotoxic kratom affect sperm potential of a compound kratom powder grams per teaspoon is important to

characterise. A genotoxic agent is capable

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of causing DNA damage and if repair is unsuccessful it can lead to further major problems such as carcinogenesis. Although to date there is no report of cancer associated with consuming the leaves of this plant a genotoxic assessment such as mutagenicity aids

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prediction of carcinogenicity potential. Thus for the first time I have shown that genotoxicity testing using the mouse lymphoma tk gene mutation assay (MLA) suggests that MSE and MIT have no genotoxic potential. This MSE toxicity was similar to that noted for MSE with the human cell lines (SH-SY5Y and HEK 293 cells) in the presence of S9.

Measurement of cll-cylce phase-specific cell death using Hoechts 33342 and propidium iodide: Preservation by ethanol fixation. The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 36:1147-1152. Laboratory procedure Buy Kratom In Illinois for assessing specific locus mutations at the TK locus in cultured L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.